Note: Starred readings are compulsory and must be made prior to the class. The allocation of compulsory readings might be subjected to changes.


Legend:  E=Evidence for discussion; D= Student-run discussion of compulsory readings; PP= student presentations; L=Instructor’s lecture; LD=Literature debate.

Session 1:  Mind the Gap: The limitations of observational data (E,L,LD)

*Farkas, George, and Keven Vicknair. 1996. "Appropriate Tests of Racial Wage Discrimination Require Controls for Cognitive Skills." American Sociological Review 61:557-660.

Heckman. James J.  1995. “Lessons from the Bell Curve. ” Journal of Political Economy, 103(5):1091-1120.

*Massey, Douglas, S. 1995. “Review Essay: The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. By Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray.” American Journal of Sociology , 1995(101):c747-753. 

Session 2: Investigating Discrimination: Field Experiments (L,D,PP)

*Bertrand, Marianne and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2004. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination”. American Economic Review 94: 991-1013.

*Pager, Devah. 2003. “The Mark of a Criminal Record”. American Journal of Sociology 108:937-75.

Session 3: Race and Ethnicity: Conceptual debates (I) (D,PP,LD)

Note this session includes a debate between Winant and Wimmer. It is recommended to read Wimmer (2013) first, Winant (2015) second, and Wimmer (2015) last.


*Wimmer, A. 2013. Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions Power, Networks. Princeton University Press

*Wimmer, A. 2015. “Race-centrism: a critique and a research agenda”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38:13, 2186-2205, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1058510


*Winant, H. 2015. “Race, ethnicity and social science”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38:13, 2176-2185, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1058514


Session 4: Race and Ethnicity: Conceptual debates (II) (D,PP,LD)

*Bonilla-Silva, E. 1997. "Rethinking Racism: Towards a Structural Interpretation". American Sociological Review, 62(3):465-480.

*Bonilla-Silva, E. 1999. “The Essential Social Fact of Race”. American Sociological Review, 64(6): 899-906.

*Loveman, Mara. 1999. “Is "Race" Essential?” American Sociological Review, 64(6): 891-898.

Winant, H. 2017.“Is Racism Global?“. Journal of World-Systems Research, 23(2): 505-510.


See also statement on "race" of the American Anthropological Associaction:


Session 5: Race and Ethnicity: A Conceptual Synthesis and Application (L,D)

Roth, W. D. 2016. “The multiple dimensions of race”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39:8, 1310-1338, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2016.1140793

Meer, N. and Modood, T.  2012. “For “Jewish” Read “Muslim”? Islamophobia as a Form of Racialisation of Ethno-Religious Groups in Britain Today”. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 1(1):34-53.

See also: American Anthropological Association Statement on race


Session 6: (Ethno)Racial Discrimination in Europe (L,D)

*Alba, Richard. 2005. "Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1): 20-49.

Weichselbaumer, D. 2017. “Discrimination Against Migrant Job Applicants in Austria: An Experimental Study”. German Economic Review, 18(2), 237-265.

Session 7: Skin Tone Stratification I (D,PP)

Hersch, Joni. 2008. “Profiling the New Immigrant Worker: The Effects of Skin Color and Height”. Journal of Labor Economics 26: 345-386.

*Maddox, K. B. 2004. “Perspectives on Racial Phenotypicality Bias”. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(4):388-401.

*Monk, E. 2014. “Skin Tone Stratification among Black Americans, 2001–2003”. Social Forces, 92(4):1313–1337.


*Monk, E. 2015. “The Cost of Color: Skin Color, Discrimination, and Health among African-Americans”. American Journal of Sociology, 121(2): 396–444.


Painter Matthew A., Malcolm D. Holmes, Jenna Bateman. 2016. “Skin Tone, Race/Ethnicity, and Wealth Inequality among New Immigrants”. Social Forces, 94(3): 1153–1185.

Session 8: Skin Tone Stratification in Latin America (D,PP,LD)

Note this session includes a debate between Villareal (2010) and Flores et al (2012), followed by a reply by Villareal (2012). 

*Flores, R.D. and Telles, E. 2012. “Social Stratification in Mexico: Disentangling Color, Ethnicity, and Class.”. American Sociological Review, 77:486-494.

*Monk, E. 2015. “The Consequences of "Race and Color" in Brazil”. Social Problems, 63(3): 413-430.


Telles, E., Flores, R.  and Urrea-Giraldo, F. 2015. “Pigmentocracies: Skin Color, Census Ethnoracial Categories and Educational Inequality in Eight Latin American Countries” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 40: 39-58 

*Villareal, A. 2010. “Stratification by Skin Color in Contemporary Mexico”. American Sociological Review, 75:652-678.

*Villareal, A. 2012. “Flawed Statistical Reasoning and Misconceptions about Race and Ethnicity”. American Sociological Review, 77:495-502.


Arceo, E, and Campos, R. 2012. "Discriminaciçon en el Mercado Laboralmexicano: un experimento de campo". Premio NAcional de4 de Investigaciçon Social 2012, 123-157.


Session 9: Discrimination Against Muslim Minorities in Europe (D,PP)

*Adida, C. L., Laitin, D. D., Valfort, M. A. 2010. “Identifying Barriers to Muslim Integration in France”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 52, 22384–22390. 

*Di Stasio, V., Lancee B., Veit S. & Yemane R. 2019. “Muslim by Default or Religious Discrimination? Results from a Set of Harmonized Field Experiments”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2019.1622826.


Meer, N. and Modood, T.  2012. “For “Jewish” Read “Muslim”? Islamophobia as a Form of Racialisation of Ethno-Religious Groups in Britain Today”. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 1(1):34-53.

*Strabac, Z., and Listhaug, O. 2007. “Anti-Muslim Prejudice in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis of Survey Data from 30 Countries”. Social Science Research , 37: 268-286.


Voas, David and Fleischmann, Fenella. 2012. “Islam Moves West: Religious Change in the First and Second Generations”. Annual Review of Sociology, 38 (1): 525-545.

Session 10: Intra-European Ethnic Boundaries? (L,D)

*Cuddy,  A.  et al. 2009. “Stereotype Content Model Across Cultures: Towards Universal Similarities and Some Differences.” British Journal of Social Psychology, 10.1348/014466608X314935, 48(1): 1-33.


*Phelps ES. 1972. “The statistical theory of racism and sexism”. American Economic Review, 62(4): 659–61.

Session 11: The Roots of Prejudice and Anti-Immigrant Sentiments (D, PP)
*Deole, S. S and Huang, Y. 2022. “Suffering and Prejudice: Do Nagative Emotions Cause Immigrant Conerns?”.  Typescript. 

*Finseraas, Henning, Andreas Kotsadam, 2017. “Does personal contact with ethnic minorities affect anti-immigrant sentiments? Evidence from a field experiment”. European Journal of Political Research, Vol 56(3), 703-722, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12199.


Fiske, S.T. (1998). “Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination” In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske and G. Lindzey

Lee, T. L and Fiske, S. 2006. “Not an outgroup, not yet an ingroup: Immigrants in the Stereotype Content Model.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30: 751–768 

*Polavieja, Javier G. 2016. “Labour-Market Competition, Recession and Anti-Immigrant Sentiments in Europe: Occupational and Environmental Drivers of Competitive Threat". Socio-Economic Review, 14(3): 395-417.

Sides, John, and Jack Citrin. 2007. “European opinion about immigration: the role of identities, interests, and information”. British Journal of Political Science 37:477-504. 

Sniderman, Paul M., Louk Hagendoorn, and Markus Prior 2004. “Predisposing factors and situational triggers: exclusionary reaction to immigrant minorities”. American Political Science Review, 98 (1):35-49.

Session 12: The Role of Culture & Cultural Assimilation (D, PP) 
*Fernández, R. 2011. “Does Culture Matter?” In Handbook of Social Economics, edited by J. Benhabib, M. O. Jackson, and A. Bisin, 481–510. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

He, Qian, Gerber, Theodore P. 2019.  “Origin-Country Culture, Migration Sequencing, and Female Employment: Variations among Immigrant Women in the United States”. International Migration Review: 1-29.

*Finseraas, H., and A. Kotsadam. 2017. “Ancestry Culture and Female Employment – An Analysis Using Second Generation Siblings.” European Sociological Review 33(3):382–92

*Polavieja, J. G. 2015. “Capturing Culture: A New Method to Estimate Exogenous Cultural Effects using Migrant Populations”. American Sociological Review, 80(1): 166-191.

Polavieja, J. 2017. "Culture as a Random Treatment: A Reply to Chou". American Sociological Review, 82(2): 444-450.